The Reason Why: The Miracle of Life on Earth MOBI ¸

The Reason Why: The Miracle of Life on Earth MOBI ¸

The Reason Why: The Miracle of Life on Earth ☂ [PDF / Epub] ☁ The Reason Why: The Miracle of Life on Earth By John Gribbin ✐ – Larringtonlifecoaching.co.uk Existen varios centenares de miles de millones de estrellas en la V a L ctea Realizando una estimaci n conservadora, varios miles de millones de ellas tienen en su rbita a planetas capaces de albergar Existen varios centenares Why: The PDF/EPUB ✓ de miles de millones de estrellas en la V a L ctea Realizando una estimaci n conservadora, varios miles de millones de ellas tienen en su rbita a planetas capaces de albergar vida Puede The Reason eBook ô que haya m s planetas habitables en la galaxia que gente en el planeta tierra Pero habitable no significa habitado La tesis de mi libro es que solo en la tierra existe una civilizaci n inteligenteEn ese sentido, Reason Why: The PDF/EPUB ì nuestra civilizaci n est sola y es especial Este libro les cuenta por qu John Gribbin de la Introducci n.


10 thoughts on “The Reason Why: The Miracle of Life on Earth

  1. David David says:

    In this book, the author a prominent British scientist lends onevoice to the stark conclusion, which several other authors have raised lately, namely that we are alone in the Milky Way Yes, this is in spite of the numerous recent discoveries of potentially habitable planets around other stars This all stems from Fermi s paradox in 1950, noted nuclear physicist Enrico Fermi, while having lunch with colleagues, suddenly blurted out Where is everybody He reasoned that if there was a In this book, the author a prominent British scientist lends onevoice to the stark conclusion, which several other authors have raised lately, namely that we are alone in the Milky Way Yes, this is in spite of the numerous recent discoveries of potentially habitable planets around other stars This all stems from Fermi s paradox in 1950, noted nuclear physicist Enrico Fermi, while having lunch with colleagues, suddenly blurted out Where is everybody He reasoned that if there was any other technological civilization in the Milky Way, then it was almost certainly many thousands or millions of yearsadvanced, and, if so, then surely some from that civilization would have explored and colonized at least with robotic probes all reasonably habitable locales in the Milky Way, including ours Yet we do not see any evidence of such visits So they must not exist.After a rather thorough discussion of all of the ways in which our own planet is, apparently, unique, Gribbin comes to a similar conclusion On a planet like the Earth, life may only get one shot at technology we have exhausted the easily accessible supplies of raw materials, so if we destroy ourselves the next intelligent species, if there is one, won t have the necessary raw materials to get started There are no second chances And that is the last piece of evidence that completes the resolution of the Fermi paradox They are not here, because they do not exist The reasons why we are here form a chain so improbable that the chance of any other technological civilization existing in the Milky Way Galaxy at the present time is vanishingly small We are alone, and we had better get used to it


  2. B Kevin B Kevin says:

    Bad news for SETI enthusiasts Our intelligent, technological species and civilization are the result of a long chain of very low probabilities Multiply together a string of very small numbers, i.e the Drake Equation and you get a vanishingly small number Gribbin, as usually, provides a clear, cogent review of how we came to be Finally an antidote to the Drake Sagen groupies who think the universe is teaming with radio astronomers Fermi s unanswered question Where are they has been an Bad news for SETI enthusiasts Our intelligent, technological species and civilization are the result of a long chain of very low probabilities Multiply together a string of very small numbers, i.e the Drake Equation and you get a vanishingly small number Gribbin, as usually, provides a clear, cogent review of how we came to be Finally an antidote to the Drake Sagen groupies who think the universe is teaming with radio astronomers Fermi s unanswered question Where are they has been answered They are not there


  3. Koen Crolla Koen Crolla says:

    Gribbin has said some phenomenally stupid things in past books, but he s really outdone himself in this one The Reason Why starts from a dubious premise Earth is uniquely suited to life and throws both legitimate science terribly abused and outright, borderline innumerate bullshit at the reader for two hundred pages in the hope that any of it stick Most arguments take the following form 1 X happened at some point in our galaxy s solar system s planet s history 2 X has positive or neutra Gribbin has said some phenomenally stupid things in past books, but he s really outdone himself in this one The Reason Why starts from a dubious premise Earth is uniquely suited to life and throws both legitimate science terribly abused and outright, borderline innumerate bullshit at the reader for two hundred pages in the hope that any of it stick Most arguments take the following form 1 X happened at some point in our galaxy s solar system s planet s history 2 X has positive or neutral, hand waved into significance implications for life 3 Therefore, X must be necessary for life.Or possibly 1 Y happened at some point in our galaxy s solar system s planet s history 2 Y has negative implications for life 3 Therefore, life must be very unlikely in this hostile universe.How common X is, or how rare Y, is usually brushed under the rug, and in the end all likelihoods are multiplied and held up as proof that life on Earth must be incredibly unlikely sufficiently so that there won t be any on any of the trillions of trillions of other planets in the universe It s the fine tuned universe all over again, except that the bullshit Gribbin desperately wants to believe isn t God None of it will be convincing to the sort of person who picks up books from the Popular Science section of their bookstore or library.I don t know if Lovelock has turned Gribbin s brain to mush or if this is some pre existing condition, but the only thing this book serves to demonstrate is that scientific literacy, which Gribbin does possess, does not make a person immune to disingenuous rationalisations in the service of things they merely want to be true


  4. Jose Moa Jose Moa says:

    John Gribbin is a great popular science writer and in this book he has made a great job.The book is the complement to the Rare Earth by Ward and Brownlee but the Gribbin book takes astep an asks for technological inteligent life not only complex life, and makesemphasis in the astronomical aspects at the light of last breakthougts as our very special position in the galaxy, by why our sun is not common,by why our solar sistema and planet earth are unlikely theunlikely is that ou John Gribbin is a great popular science writer and in this book he has made a great job.The book is the complement to the Rare Earth by Ward and Brownlee but the Gribbin book takes astep an asks for technological inteligent life not only complex life, and makesemphasis in the astronomical aspects at the light of last breakthougts as our very special position in the galaxy, by why our sun is not common,by why our solar sistema and planet earth are unlikely theunlikely is that our planet has a big moon that stabilices the tilt of the earth axis,favoures the plate techtonics ,the magnetic field and long time ago great tides that aided the pass of complex life from ocean to land.In resumen our inteligence is the product of many unlakely steps tha makes the product near to zero.By other hand the existence of inteligence not necesarily drives to technology,for example the dolphins can be te other inteligent specie in our planet but dont have hands,fire nor metal and by that no technologyThe conclusi n of Gribbin is that we are alone in the entire Galaxy and perhaps in the entire observable universe


  5. Andrés Astudillo Andrés Astudillo says:

    He visto que este libro tiene puntaje de 3.42 estrellas, pero tambi n he visto que quienes le dan un mal puntaje son personas que no leen divulgaci n cient fica Y ya veo por qu solo para pasar por la introducci n, hay que tener una base de astrof sica y otra de gen tica, habiendo ya tenido lecturas sobre cosmolog a He visto que mencionan situaciones totalmente inveros miles, pero, he aqu la gran bomba, y no es un argumento ad verecundiam, pero simplemente el libro es la s ntesis de diversos He visto que este libro tiene puntaje de 3.42 estrellas, pero tambi n he visto que quienes le dan un mal puntaje son personas que no leen divulgaci n cient fica Y ya veo por qu solo para pasar por la introducci n, hay que tener una base de astrof sica y otra de gen tica, habiendo ya tenido lecturas sobre cosmolog a He visto que mencionan situaciones totalmente inveros miles, pero, he aqu la gran bomba, y no es un argumento ad verecundiam, pero simplemente el libro es la s ntesis de diversos estudios, que van desde astrof sica, hasta paleontolog a Si es que uno tiene un poco de experiencia y es v lido tambi n si es que no se la tiene leyendo divulgaci n cient fica, uno no puede evitar sentirse curioso por la vida en este libro John Gribbin nos plantea argumentos basados en estudios de Carl Sagan, de Stephen Jay Gould, de antrop logos, de ge logos, y astrobi logos, en donde los sistematiza, y simplemente colocan todas las variables que de una u otra manera han logrado converger con la existencia no solo de vida las c lulas procariotas primordiales , sino con lo que es una apolog a con el concepto de civilizaci n tecnol gica , lo cual es sumamente improbable o poco probable Primeramente, vale aclarar el concepto de vida Qu es la vida es una pregunta que hasta el mismo Schrodinger se hizo y fue incluso el t tulo de uno de sus libros Podemos pensar que vida es un cuerpo animado, que goza de motricidad, y cumple con un ciclo que involucra la perpetuaci n de la especie Partiendo de este punto, vida puede ser tanto una bacteria, como un escorpi n, o cualquier otra especie de entomofauna, pasando por herpetofauna, mastofauna, ornitofauna, etc., hasta llegar al ser humano Ahora, no es lo mismo cualquier otra especie, sea un bacilo de Koch, como otra que ha construido Generadores Termoel ctricos de Radiois topos, motores de combusti n interna, y b sicamente la manipulaci n de variables para preguntarnos el mism simo origen del universo Solo una lo puede hacer y lo ha hecho, o acaso hemos visto a gatos hacerse esta pregunta No sta es la base del libro, la improbabilidad de que exista una civilizaci n tecnol gica como la nuestra Leer cada uno de los cap tulos es incrementar el grado de incertidumbre y minimizando la probabilidad de que exista vida como la nuestra, y verdaderamente vivir, es el conjunto de accidentes y azar que se han acumulado a lo largo de la historia No valorar este argumento es negar el m todo cient fico y es negar a la condici n humana Ni siquiera empezar con el argumento creacionista Desde la posici n de la V a L ctea, pasando por la franja de vida que nos sit a en un lugar amigable para que la vida floresca, hasta la cantidad de tomos de hidr geno que hay en el Universo, son argumentos que soportan al libro No es coincidencia de que los elementos que m s existen en el universo pueden crear ARN, pero el ADN como tal, tiene enlaces de f sforo y carbono, los cuales oh, que azarosa probabilidad , son elementos m s complejos que se generan en las reacciones termonucleares de las estrellas en estado de Primera Secuencia.Este libro es necesario en la biblioteca de todo amante de la ciencia, y tambi n de la vida Est escrito en lenguaje no t cnico, a pesar de que algunos conceptos son explicados en el mismo libro Tiene un apartado de lecturas recomendadas, y de manera muy directa, me ha hecho valorarnos como especie, ya que es sumamente improbable que exista vida como la nuestra


  6. Nola Redd Nola Redd says:

    Anyone who has taken a significant number of science classes will likely come to this book with the same bias I have, having been repeatedly taught that the Earth, the solar system, and the Milky Way are in no wise special But Gribbin argues a perspective different from most scientists that in the galaxy, at least, intelligent life is a rare occurrence, and that the Earth is likely exceedingly special, if not completely unique.Gribban s arguments are often hampered by the fact that they are f Anyone who has taken a significant number of science classes will likely come to this book with the same bias I have, having been repeatedly taught that the Earth, the solar system, and the Milky Way are in no wise special But Gribbin argues a perspective different from most scientists that in the galaxy, at least, intelligent life is a rare occurrence, and that the Earth is likely exceedingly special, if not completely unique.Gribban s arguments are often hampered by the fact that they are frozen in a book Anyone who has followed the updates of NASA s Kepler mission will raise their eyes at the fact that, at publication, only Jupiter like planets had been discovered Similarly, Gribbin knocks out red dwarfs as potentially hosting habitable planets, though research in the last few years suggests life could thrive Such problems are, of course, not the fault of the author, who can only work with the data available and not what will one day be known.Leaving that slight problem behind, Gribbin does an excellent job of walking the non scientist through conditions that make the sun, the solar system, and the Earth unique He lays out his arguments for the conditions necessary for life to evolve, and why it would take a fortuitous string of actions to allow it If you want to know a bitabout the galaxy, he provides clear descriptions of what makes it tick.But While his arguments are logical and well laid out most of the time, they also feature flagrant omissions that frustrated me Here are just a few Gribbin argues that the extrasolar planets observed at the time were hot Jupiters large gas giants that stay close to the sun He does note in passing that observational techniques are skewed toward finding such planets when studying planets that gravitationally tug at their parent star, large, close bodies will be easiest to spot Despite this, he uses the dominance of these discoveries to argue that small rocky planets are rare Of course they were rarely seen the observations were admittedly biased toward large planets due to technological limitations On a side note, NASA s Kepler has shown, instead, that rocky planets abound throughout the galaxy Gribbin also argues that a moon that is proportionately as large as its planet as Earth s is rare However, he is basing it off the observation of four rocky planets, which is a 25% probability He is careful to note that no FULL SIZED planet has such a moon this is because the dwarf planet, Pluto, has a similarly large moon that likely formed the same way.These are only two examples, but several abound.Similarly, the author never uses footnotes and rarely cites his claims There were a few points he brought up that I was unfamiliar with and so googled He does occasionally mention sources by name but not frequently And in at least one case the idea that the mass extinctions in the Younger Dryas period was caused by an impact he neglects to note that many scientists oppose this idea, and that the group that has proposed it has no simulations to back up their theory In fact, recently a group of scientists from a number of fields published a paper in a respected journal refuting the claim, including an impact specialist who demonstrated that the physics proposed were not possibleand he used simulations Similarly, I found very little published work linking extinctions with the passage through the galaxy s spiral arms.Often, in fact, the author relies on the argument that we don t know how a could have caused b, but it makes sense to state his case, a lousy case for a scientist to make Then he strings these conceptual possibilities together to assert that humans are it for intelligent life in the Milky Way.Another trick he frequently employs is the use of the phrases like us or as we know it The conditions he describes may well mean that there are no other humanoid like aliens on rocky planets virtually identical to earth but that doesn t mean another, different form of life could not have come into play on another, dissimilar planet even now, scientists think life could have evolved on Jupiter s moon, Europa, which orbits outside the defined habitable zone but contains a sheet of ice insulating water, or Saturn s moon, Titan, where liquid ammonia prevails instead of water As a side note, having interviewed a number of astrophysicists, astronomers, and planetary scientists, I ve noticed that, when asked about the possibilities of life or habitability, they tend to respond with that s not my field and point me toward astrobiologists.There were a number of points that the author raised that I would like to explore , but I take most of his arguments with an enormous grain of salt Still, in most cases, he managed to explain very technical arrangements quite clearly, so he gets points for that Separating fact from speculation, however, could be a challenge for those who know little about the field


  7. Scott Lupo Scott Lupo says:

    Super interesting book taking the view that Earth, and the technological, intelligent beings inhabiting Earth, is a totally rare event in a galaxy the size of the Milky Way I come from the view that with billions of stars in a galaxy and billions of galaxies throughout the universe that it just comes down to pure numbers There has to be intelligent life out there somewhere John Gribbin does a good job of saying Hold on , maybe we are the only intelligent life in the universe He consedes th Super interesting book taking the view that Earth, and the technological, intelligent beings inhabiting Earth, is a totally rare event in a galaxy the size of the Milky Way I come from the view that with billions of stars in a galaxy and billions of galaxies throughout the universe that it just comes down to pure numbers There has to be intelligent life out there somewhere John Gribbin does a good job of saying Hold on , maybe we are the only intelligent life in the universe He consedes that life certainly exists on other planets, but intelligent life, that s a whole different ballgame The events that occurred over billions of years in our solar system, and there are a lot of them, Gribbin believes is unique and is most likely improbable to happen again He makes a good argument on how improbable it was that we exist today Things had to go a certain way in terms of geologic time and circumstances Of course, we are talking about millions of years at a time 100 s of millions, billions which means really anything could have happened Of course, we can infer quite a bit of information from core samplings, rocks, meteorites that hit Earth, etc While he really does make some good arguments I still think we are missing something or that this type of science is still too new to come to any concrete conclusions However, I always like to read both sides of a discussion to get all points of view This point of view made by Gribbin is good but I think future evidence will show that we are not alone in the universe


  8. Ron Ron says:

    Another discussion of the extraordinary events in the creation of the solar system where it is in the galaxy, how it seemed to have formed, how the earth seems to have formed, and endured, despite all sorts of assaults from without the Late Heavy Bombardment, the Chixulub impact, the Tunguska event and within massive volcanic activity, continental formation and drifting, Snowball Earth and subsequent Ice Ages that all contributed to the formation of life, and eventually to intelligent, techn Another discussion of the extraordinary events in the creation of the solar system where it is in the galaxy, how it seemed to have formed, how the earth seems to have formed, and endured, despite all sorts of assaults from without the Late Heavy Bombardment, the Chixulub impact, the Tunguska event and within massive volcanic activity, continental formation and drifting, Snowball Earth and subsequent Ice Ages that all contributed to the formation of life, and eventually to intelligent, technological life The premise of the book, its argument and its conclusion are that the circumstances that have led to us, here, now, were so extraordinary that we are very likely the only ones anywhere I find the argument of placement in the galaxy, where there were sufficient metallic elements in the cosmic mix to create a multifarious Earth, and far enough away from young, big stars that will go supernova and wipe out everything nearby, to be new to me, and compelling.It reiterated many of the issues in Rare Earth, but from enough of a different angle that it was always interesting For a short, 20 page book, it took me an unusually long time to get through it It gives me some solace in the fact that my genes will predispose me to shuffle off this mortal coil within a decade or so, so I won t be around for the inevitable environmental breakdown once greenhouse gases hit the tipping point and boil everything up Now to find some arguments for the other side, which will have to be damn good to shove aside those made by this book and Rate Earth


  9. Jack Jack says:

    I thought that the author was actually a little weak on the science Gribbin would make certain assertions about why particular conditions or processes in evolution were likely to be uncommon, attempt to support with one or two facts, but would then use these assertions later in the book as assumptions that formed the basis of other assertions For example, he discussed the possibility of the earth crossing certain boundaries of density in the intergalactic medium made by the arms in the spiral I thought that the author was actually a little weak on the science Gribbin would make certain assertions about why particular conditions or processes in evolution were likely to be uncommon, attempt to support with one or two facts, but would then use these assertions later in the book as assumptions that formed the basis of other assertions For example, he discussed the possibility of the earth crossing certain boundaries of density in the intergalactic medium made by the arms in the spiral of the Milky Way, and attempts to link these crossings with historical mass extinctions in the history of life on earth However, except for making plausibility arguments for these connections, he is not able to show that readers should accept his assertions i.e while the connection is possible, there isn t much scientifically provided to support believing that such a connection is true He then uses these crossing events to claim that planets nearer the galactic center would experience extinctionsfrequently because their orbits are shorter, and therefore intelligent life couldn t evolve on these planets because of these crossings Thus, assertions become assumptions, and I found this book less than scientifically satisfying


  10. Erik Erik says:

    I think the book relied too heavily upon our own, incompletely understood, story of intelligent life on earth a big assumption to argue for the absence of all other forms of intelligent life in the universe Yes, our story requires some lucky accidents and links in a chain, but there may well be other chains and other stories The odds of an exact replication of our story and just that story probably are infinitesimal, but that s fallacious reasoning The odds of an exact repetition of any su I think the book relied too heavily upon our own, incompletely understood, story of intelligent life on earth a big assumption to argue for the absence of all other forms of intelligent life in the universe Yes, our story requires some lucky accidents and links in a chain, but there may well be other chains and other stories The odds of an exact replication of our story and just that story probably are infinitesimal, but that s fallacious reasoning The odds of an exact repetition of any sufficiently complex event are infinitesimal, but that doesn t rule out the occurrence of many other events sufficiently similar to qualify under a definition of what similar enough means The Fermi paradox is mentioned quite a lot but this argument by absence too presumes that they are like us as a basic premise, and so is vulnerable to objections I m an optimist about intelligent life in the universe, but it is likely so different we would not, in our present state of understanding, even recognize it as such, nor its goals and manifestations in other species Read Stanislaw Lem s Fiasco for a nice reminder of this


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